Getting through epic sleep deprivation

People kept saying to me, ‘I don’t know how you do it! Where do you get the energy?’ And to be honest, I wasn’t really sure how I was getting through it either. The grinding exhaustion of 20 months of relentless sleep deprivation is an exquisite torture that I never imagined I’d have the pleasure of knowing so intimately. But I did get through it; and relatively unscathed too (if you don’t count the wrinkles and grey hairs). So this post will be about how I did it and some possible options for you to look into if you’re staring down the barrel of yet another sleepless night with your baby or toddler.

First of all let’s examine the idea of resilience and tenacity. Most dictionaries define resilience as ‘the power or ability to return to the original form or position, after being bent, compressed, or stretched.’ Tenacity is defined as ‘holding fast’ or ‘persisting’. So let’s assume that to be both tenacious and resilient you need to be able to hold onto something strongly enough that no matter how much you’re bent or stretched, you’re still able to bounce back at the end.

So what makes some people more tenacious and more resilient than others? In my case it’s hope. I am always hopeful. In my heart of hearts I believe there’s got to be an answer to a problem or a positive outcome from a challenge. I never gave up hope that I would, one day, sleep again or that I would find the reason A was waking all night.

I’ve talked previously about finding my strength through my struggles and I think it’s probably true that I become more tenacious and more resilient the more I go through and overcome. Because the more you overcome, the greater the foundation for your hope the next time it’s challenged.

Don’t get me wrong; I didn’t just grit my teeth and bear it. I complained. Loudly. Frequently. It was cathartic, but it was also useful. Every time I had a public whinge on social media another new lead would open up. Ultimately it was a desperate plea on my Facebook page that resulted in a recommendation for a naturopath who confirmed that multiple ongoing food intolerances were the most likely cause of A’s night wakings.

As A is a reflux baby we’d already been through the ringer with elimination diets, but that was when she was a breastfed baby. This was now a fully weaned toddler. How on earth do you put a 20 month old through a full elimination diet!?

Enter the unproven (but not unscientific) method of food intolerance testing which checks your blood for the presence of food-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Unlike IgE antibodies, which occur in abnormally large quantities in people with allergies, IgG antibodies are found in both allergic and non-allergic people. A simple finger-prick test, it is not endorsed by either the medical community or the allergy community. But I was desperate for quick answers so I was willing to take a punt.

The test showed A was reacting moderately to gluten, nuts, rice and legumes. I was pretty skeptical, because gluten was the only one of those we identified when she was a baby, but for the sake of answers and a good night’s sleep I was willing to try eliminating them from her diet.

After three days A was sleeping through the night. I couldn’t believe it. It’s been two weeks now and the change is miraculous! Apart from the odd night where she grizzles about teeth or a cold, she is no longer the screaming banshee we used to deal with night after night. She’s also much more settled during the day. Less hyperactive and frenetic.

Aside from dealing with potential food intolerances to resolve night wakings, here are some other strategies I recommend to help you stay sane and keep you going.

1. Find something you love and that gives you energy and do it!

In my case I found that I could write, and loved it, no matter how tired I was. I also carved out a space for myself at work where I was helping people, and that made me happy too. When you’re doing something that engages and motivates you it gives you energy. So find that thing and do it.

2. Exercise!

I know, it seems completely counterintuitive when you are bone-weary and literally struggling to put one foot in front of the other. I’ve been there. I know; I hear you. But if there’s some form of exercise you used to love pre-baby (for me it’s yoga and swimming) then force yourself to do it. Take baby steps, don’t overdo it. Just go for a walk with the stroller at first, or take a racquet and ball down to the local school and do just a few hits. I promise you will feel better for it. There will be days your entire body is screaming at you but after you exercise (and subsequently take in massive amounts of fresh oxygen) your body will thank you for it.

3. Sleep whenever you can, and call on help to enable it.

Sleep on the bus on the way to work. Take a nap in your lunch break. Go to bed early. Do whatever it takes. Call friends or family to watch your older child/ren while you take a power nap. Sleep deprivation will kill you in the end, after it’s caused you vast physical and psychological damage. Don’t let it.

I hope anyone suffering out there finds the answer to their sleep deprivation woes quickly. I wouldn’t wish it on my worst enemy! As always, I love to hear your thoughts below in the comments.

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Starting solids with a food intolerant baby

Starting solids with your baby is usually exciting and fun. It marks the beginning of weaning from milk to family foods and is a major milestone in your lives.

The spectrum of approaches to introducing solids ranges from ‘baby-led weaning’ to spoon feeding. Baby-led weaning is a more child directed approach and involves allowing the baby to select their own food, usually from the family foods at the table. Spoon feeding involves offering the baby a purée on a spoon, with the most popular first food being rice cereal.

Unfortunately, for some mamas introducing solids is a time fraught with fear and trepidation. If your baby suffers from reflux then it’s possible you already know about their food intolerances. Perhaps you’ve eliminated the offending food proteins from your diet or your baby is on an elemental (amino acid) formula like Neocate. In most cases the big offenders are dairy and soy, but even if you steer clear of the identified food proteins the introduction of solids can still be a time of major reflux flares and night wakings.

The key is to go slowly. Start with one food at a time, for at least 5 days, and keep a strict food diary to record any reactions (including, if you’re breastfeeding, what you’re eating). If you choose to use the baby-led approach ensure that baby is only accessing one food (a range of options will come later – for now just try to be patient).

Another thing to remember is that reflux babies usually have a very sensitive gag reflex, so only offer small amounts of food and don’t be alarmed if baby appears to gag on everything! It just takes time and familiarisation and you mustn’t force them to eat anything lest they develop an oral aversion.

With regard to what food to introduce first: remember the mantra ‘every baby is different’. Just because rice cereal worked for the lady down the road or your Great Aunt Nell doesn’t mean it will work for your baby. In fact, rice cereal can be the worst thing to introduce first to a food intolerant baby! It can also be the trigger for ongoing constipation issues with some toddlers because it slows down their gut motility. Conversely, for babies with reflux that isn’t caused by food intolerances it can be great as it helps the stomach contents to stay settled.

In our case, A started with homemade chicken stock (broth) made from simmering the bones of an organic chicken in water for four hours. I had read about the healing qualities of bone broth and I knew that A’s gut needed healing.

The first lot of broth went really well. She loved it and had no reaction at all. The second time I used the bones of a BBQ (rotisserie) chicken from my local supermarket because we’d eaten the chicken for dinner. It was a free-range chook but it was a total disaster. Poor little A broke out in a rash around her mouth and very quickly showed signs of intestinal distress – extreme flatulence, mucous in her stools, frequent night wakings and irritability. I’m pretty sure those chickens are basted in soy, so that was a silly move on my part.

The second food we introduced was butternut pumpkin (squash). This also went well with no reaction. Zucchini came next and provoked a big reaction so then we tried swede (rutabaga), which was fine.

We continued to trial foods, adding one new one per week (carrots – fine; banana – epic fail; etc) until we had a solid list of meats and vegetables and a few fruits. We avoided grains for quite a while with A because we wanted to be as kind to her gut as possible. I mixed slippery elm and probiotics into every single purée in order to soothe and fortify her gut and all was going quite well, even if at a seemingly glacial pace. We retrialled zucchini with success and gradually began to add more and more variety, including gluten-free bread and rice.

At eleven months it was time for me to return to work and this is when things got tricky. Our beautiful day care centre has an in-house ‘chef’ who prepares morning and afternoon tea and lunch. I gave the centre A’s list of safe foods, and they dutifully stuck to it, but we found that when we picked her up at the end of the day she was STARVING. I was pumping milk for her at work but she was refusing to drink it at day care and my supply was dropping. On top of this she was miserable because she wanted to eat what the other babies were eating.

We stuck it out for another five months, introducing a new food each week until at 14 months we had an appointment with an immunologist who basically told us to remove all restrictions from both of our diets. The day care centre was overjoyed and A was no longer hungry at the end of the day. We transitioned pretty smoothly to a normal diet but after a few weeks we noticed that sleep started to become elusive again and the reflux was back.

I’m now at the point where A is seeing an osteopath again and we’ll try four sessions with him before I try restricting her diet again. My instinct tells me it’s still food intolerances, but the thought of putting her on a restricted diet at 20 months fills me with dread.

I would love to hear anyone else’s story – please comment below! Did you try the GAPS diet with your LO? Or the Failsafe diet (as I did)? Did your LO grow out of their intolerances without intervention?

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Elimination diets

If you have a reflux baby and you’ve decided to go down the route of investigating possible food intolerances through an elimination diet you will need all the support you can get. It is a long, hard road and friends and family just do not understand how hard it is nor how strict you have to be. It’s not like going on a diet to lose weight, where you can have the odd piece of chocolate and get back on the wagon tomorrow. If you’re doing this for your baby then the tiniest slip-up can leave you with 24 hours of no sleep and tinnitus from the screaming.

Essentially, you have to remove all the likely offending foods from baby’s diet until you get to ‘baseline’ or a symptom-free baby. Most commonly, all traces of dairy and soy are eliminated from the diet for between two and three weeks. This means watching their nappies carefully until most or all of the mucous is gone. Stools have a lag effect because mucous is a symptom of gut damage and this takes time to heal. After this time the baby should become markedly more settled and the persistence of mucous in stools should start easing. Once your baby has been at baseline for two weeks you can start to very gradually reintroduce foods until you’ve identified the culprits. If baby reacts to something, remove the food from your diet again and wait several days before trying a different food. If symptoms do not settle within a reasonable timeframe you could then embark on a full elimination diet removing all allergy causing foods and/or food chemicals.

There are many different elimination diets out there. When I first set down this path I followed the Dr Sears Elimination Diet, which basically consists of eating nothing but pears, potatoes, sweet potatoes and rice for two weeks. I followed it pretty religiously, except that I also ate zucchini. I noticed after two weeks that Ada’s symptoms had improved dramatically. She was so peaceful! The only problem was that I was literally starving to death and if I had to eat another lamb chop I was going to hurt somebody. So I chucked in the towel and went back to eating everything except dairy. This was a huge mistake because I very quickly undid all of my hard work and went back to having a super cranky baby all over again!

The second elimination diet I tried was the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Failsafe Diet. This one was developed by allergists at a leading hospital in Sydney, Australia and is accompanied by a handbook and a cookbook. It is also the one that accredited practising dieticians and nutritionists (in Australia) are familiar with, so you’re more likely to get support from health professionals to follow it.

I followed this one strictly for two weeks, and while we didn’t get the same reduction in symptoms as with the Dr Sears diet I was a much happier mama for having a little variety in my diet. Because it was more sustainable I was able to stick it out for 10 months, during which time I gradually reintroduced foods into my diet until we had narrowed A’s intolerances down to dairy, soy, wheat and egg. As you can imagine I wasn’t left with a huge range of food choices and I ended up eating a lot of meat, fruit and vegetables! I also lost 24 kilos but that most certainly was not my motivation.

During this time we also commenced solids with A, which is a separate story (coming soon!)

As an aside, ‘all traces of dairy’ literally means just that – check packets for the words ‘contains milk‘, do not eat things which have been baked with milk, do not eat things that might even contain the barest smidgen of cow’s milk protein. So many people fail with the elimination diet because they didn’t realise they couldn’t just cut out their usual cappuccino and yoghurt and everything would be fine.

I would love to hear from anyone who’s been through an elimination diet for their baby. Please post your experience below and your best tips for any mamas considering attempting it!

Does my baby have food intolerances?

If your baby has reflux or is having difficulty sleeping it is worth asking some questions about possible food intolerances. In many cases, reflux can be a major symptom of the food intolerance/s and once you identify and eliminate the offending food you can usually eliminate or significantly reduce the reflux.

First of all it’s important to note that infant reflux generally stems from one or all of the following triggers:

  1. Anatomical/structural – baby has a weak or immature oesophageal sphincter that simply allows food and stomach acid to spill up into the oesophagus (and often beyond!)
  2. Aerophagia – baby has a poor latch and can’t form a complete seal on the breast or bottle, either due to a tongue-tie, lip-tie or both. This means that baby is sucking in air along with milk, creating significant gastric discomfort and often reflux.
  3. Food intolerances/allergies – adults suffer from reflux symptoms as a result of food intolerances, so why not babies? When a food intolerance is present the proteins in the offending food damage the inside lining of the intestinal tract and the body reacts accordingly. In reflux babies Milk Soy Protein Intolerance (MSPI)is the most likely cause. It is thought that about half of reflux babies have a cow’s milk protein intolerance, and about half of these again also have a soy protein intolerance.

NB: There are other triggers (e.g. dysphagia, delayed gastric emptying, pyloric stenosis, eosinophilic oesophagitis) but these are less common and I don’t have any direct experience with them. In addition, while some babies simply have ‘anatomical reflux’, others (such as A) have all three of the aforementioned triggers!

For this post I’ll be focusing just on food intolerances.

Many health professionals claim that it’s highly unusual for babies to react to food proteins through breastmilk and that the baby is more likely to be suffering from colic (which is code for ‘I don’t know why this baby is so unhappy’). However, studies are increasingly finding links between the food ingested by mama and the gut reaction of the baby.

Symptoms of food intolerance in babies

  • spitting up or vomiting
  • persistent mucous in stools with or without stringy bits (the mucous will ‘bridge’ the folds of the nappy)
  • diarrhoea, loose and watery stools, frequent stools
  • ‘burny poos’ – persistent acidic stools
  • profuse painful wind, and lower abdominal pain
  • strange, persistent rashes or unexplained eczema
  • persistent nappy rash and burnt bottom
  • crying
  • fussing
  • grizzling and generally unhappy
  • squirming constantly
  • refusing to feed or constantly seeming hungry
  • upset digestion
  • ‘failure to thrive’, slow weight gain and underweight
  • insomnia and inability to settle
  • red cheeks and ears which can come and go and feel hot to the touch
  • sandpaper-like roughness on the upper arms

Note that many of the above are also symptoms of reflux, teething and various other bubba ‘grievances’. Most food intolerance reactions occur in the lower gut, specifically stools, abdominal pain and wind. If you suspect your baby is reacting to a food it is critical that you see a knowledgeable health professional to discuss. 

What might your health professional suggest?

Obviously babies can’t tell us if they feel yucky after eating a certain food and it’s even more challenging when you’re breastfeeding because the reactions can be so delayed. Therefore if you’re going to go down the elimination diet route on behalf of your baby you’ll have to become a little bit forensic (more information about elimination diets here).

Whilst allergies can be diagnosed through either a skin prick test or a blood test, intolerances are much trickier. In adults intolerances are usually diagnosed by undergoing an elimination diet wherein the most likely offending foods are removed from the diet for a period of two to three weeks and then reintroduced gradually to determine which are the trigger foods.

If you’re bottle-feeding your health professional may suggest that you try a hypoallergenic formula, and failing that may suggest an amino acid formula where the proteins are fully broken down.

Your health professional may also suggest that baby’s symptoms are being caused by other factors, such as an overactive or forceful letdown (if you’re breastfeeding) or temporary lactose intolerance after illness.

Non-medical strategies for managing infant reflux

We tried everything, man.

We tried everything, man.

There’s plenty of advice out there about how to manage your reflux baby’s symptoms. When I was dealing with the screamy baby from hell I spent hours trawling through them, so for this post I thought I would focus on what strategies we tried and what worked for us (with ratings for usefulness). I’m not going to list the medical strategies here – I’ll do that in a separate post later. Hopefully you find some helpful tips here.

Physical remedies

Elevating the cot/crib/bassinet mattress so that baby’s head is higher than their toes. We just used towels but if you have the funds you can go all out and buy a special ‘reflux wedge’. I would give this strategy a 6/10 for usefulness because A was so wriggly that she would inevitably end up in a less than comfortable position (like all scrunched down the end of the bassinet!) and wake up. And scream. It did help reduce the incidences of her choking on her vomit.

Holding baby upright for 20-30 minutes after a feed. This helped us a fair bit. It ensures that most of baby’s food (ie milk) is digested by the time you lay them down so there is less available to be jettisoned up through the oesophageal sphincter. Unfortunately with a newborn it does mean that throughout the wee hours of the night you’ll need to find a way to keep both yourself and baby vertical. Not so easy when you’re chronically sleep deprived and hallucinating from exhaustion. 7/10 for usefulness.

Feeding baby in an upright position. If you’re bottle feeding this is self-explanatory (ie baby is not lying down). If you’re breastfeeding I would strongly recommend you see a lactation consultant, ideally one who is International Board Certified (AKA an IBCLC), for tips on how to do this. The LC will also assess baby’s latch to see if this is causing or exacerbating baby’s symptoms – see this previous post on aerophagia and the link between tongue-tie/lip-tie and reflux. Another thing they’ll look for is an overactive letdown, which is commonly misdiagnosed as reflux. The justification for the positioning is related to the advice to keep the baby upright after a feed – gravity helps to get more of the milk travelling in a downward trajectory. 7/10 for usefulness (a little challenging when you’re fairly generously endowed and also battling with nipple shields).

Baby (infant) massage can help with infant reflux. In addition it has the benefits of calming baby and enhancing the bond between baby and his/her caregiver. This last part is huge because in my darker moments I used to really resent A for being like she was. It’s so hard to love a baby who does nothing but scream all day, no matter how much you sympathise with them. Especially when you’re chronically sleep-deprived. The time spent massaging baby is so lovely and peaceful and they really do seem to enjoy it a great deal. 9/10 for usefulness. 10/10 for awesomeness.

Bodywork. Babies may be experiencing reflux symptoms because their little bodies are still out of alignment from birth. The process of getting out of our bodies and into the world is actually really hard work! Most lactation consultants recommend craniosacral therapy (CST), which is a very gentle, light-touch massage. If you choose to take your baby to a chiropractor, make sure they are very experienced with babies and also that they do very light adjustments. When adjusting your baby, it should just look like a light massage, nothing like what is done on an adult. We took A to see my chiropractor and saw no difference so I was sceptical about the outcomes from seeing an osteopath who specialises in CST. Nevertheless it did actually make a difference to her symptoms. 9/10 for usefulness (if only they weren’t so freaking expensive!)

Tongue-tie/lip-tie revision. For some babies it’s actually a tongue-tie and/or lip-tie that is exacerbating their reflux. See here for more information on the link between tongue and lip-ties and reflux. 7/10 for usefulness – others have had more success and we are actually planning on having A’s ties reviewed by a dentist who does laser revisions. Stay tuned for an update.

White noise helps some babies because it soothes their nervous systems and provides them with something to focus on besides the pain they are experiencing. It worked quite well for A, especially when we held her next to our excessively loud range hood in the kitchen. We ended up downloading some lovely ‘sounds of the sea’ white noise. 7/10 for usefulness.

Herbal remedies

Slippery elm is recommended by naturopaths to ease reflux symptoms because of its soothing effect on the mucous membranes of the digestive tract.

Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra) is the inner bark derived from the slippery elm tree. Usually found in a powder form, its name comes from its ‘slippery’ consistency when it is mixed with water. 8/10 for usefulness. It’s also helpful for babies with slow gut motility who are having trouble passing stools as it makes everything a lot more… Slippery!

Iberogast is a herbal remedy containing extracts of Iberis amara (Bitter candytuft),  Angelica archangelica (Angelica) root,  Matricaria recuitita (Chamomile) flowers, Carum carvi (Caraway) fruit,  Silybum marianum (St Mary’s thistle),
Melissa officianalis (Lemon balm) leaves, Mentha x piperitae (Peppermint) leaves, Chelidonium majus (Greater celandine), and Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) root. It was recommended to me by several naturopaths as a reflux remedy.

According to its website, ‘Iberogast has been clinically proven to treat the discomfort experienced with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia.’ We found that Iberogast worked the same or slightly better than Colic Calm. 7/10 for usefulness. Certainly better than Zantac!

Colic calm is a homeopathic remedy containing chamomile, fennel, caraway, ginger, peppermint, lemon balm, aloe, blackthorn and vegetable carbon. Because it’s homeopathic it actually only contains minuscule amounts of these ingredients. The vegetable carbon makes the liquid black and it will give baby a black tongue (not to mention black stools!) I’m personally extremely skeptical about homeopathy, but this stuff honestly seemed to calm her down within seconds. It was an absolute godsend for those times that she was screaming non-stop and all the usual tricks didn’t help. 7/10 for usefulness.

Probiotics. I’m going to stress that these are good for all babies but especially reflux babies, and especially reflux babies with multiple food protein intolerances/allergies. Some researchers have found that reflux is exacerbated by bacterial overgrowth in the stomach and intestines. According to these researchers, successful treatment is based on restoring adequate stomach acid production and eliminating bacterial overgrowth. This can be achieved by taking a combination of slippery elm (see above), probiotics and digestive enzymes (see below). My paediatric gastroenterologist was very pleased that we were giving A probiotics. 8/10 for usefulness.

Digestive enzymes are a good adjunct to taking probiotics, because they both help to break your food down into digestible nutrients that can be better absorbed and utilised by the body. See here for more information on the differences between probiotics and digestive enzymes. We bought a product at great expense from the US because a mama on a forum I frequent was absolutely raving about how much it helped her son’s reflux. I definitely feel like it helped me while I was on the elimination diet but I’m not really sure how much it helped A. 6/10 for usefulness.

Infant (Acid) Reflux

Let’s begin by saying I had never heard of infant reflux before A came along. I’d heard about adults having it and it sounded horrendous. I suffered from pretty epic heartburn whilst pregnant both times, but absolutely nothing prepared me for the total, life-changing horror of having a baby with infant reflux (AKA acid reflux, gastro-oesophageal reflux, gastric reflux).

When the symptoms first started showing I immediately jumped on Dr Google. After feeds A would start screaming, usually within 5 minutes, arch her back, flail her arms around, hiccup and go really stiff like a board yet super squirmy like a cat that doesn’t want to be petted. She was a constant bundle of misery and wouldn’t sleep for more than 10 minutes at a time. I searched for ‘baby screams after feeding’ and instantly hit on a million articles about infant reflux. I also came across a few articles about colic.

I took A straight to our family doctor who has additional specialist qualifications in childhood health, although he’s not a paediatrician. He examined her and said to me, ‘all babies cry. They’re all unsettled during the first six weeks. I wouldn’t recommend any medication – they have terrible side-effects, and besides, all babies have reflux because their oesophageal sphincters are immature. She looks fine to me. I’m sure she’ll settle down – it’s probably just colic and she’ll grow out of it.’ Well… more on our story can be found at The Story of A but suffice it to say that she most certainly did have problematic reflux and I wish I’d been able to attend that first appointment armed with more of the knowledge and confidence that I have now!

So what is infant reflux?

Infant reflux is where the contents of the baby’s stomach (food and digestive acids) are brought up into the oesophagus and regurgitated. The baby may then vomit out or ‘spit up’ the stomach contents (which in the case of very young babies is usually the milk they just drank). The acid can burn and may cause the baby great discomfort and/or pain. Adults often refer to reflux symptoms as indigestion.

In many cases reflux is simply an unfortunate side effect of an immature lower oesophageal sphincter. As the baby or child matures so does the ring of muscle at the top of the stomach, which controls the flow of food from the oesophagus into the stomach and is supposed to prevent stomach acid and digested food from going back up again.

Picture from the very helpful ‘What is Gastric Reflux?’ page on http://www.cryingoverspiltmilk.co.nz

Bryan Vartabedian’s book Colic Solved was the first thing I read that gave me a comprehensive understanding of infant reflux. The author is a paediatric gastroenterologist and the book is a thoroughly researched account of some of the real causes of ‘colic’ and ways of dealing with it. He notes that ‘many if not most cases of colic are actually caused by acid reflux’. In Chapter Three he details the ‘Seven Signs of Reflux in Your Baby’ including:

  • Spitting up and vomiting (as well as ‘wet burps’)
  • Constant hiccups
  • Feeding disturbances
  • Chronic irritability
  • Discomfort when lying on the back
  • Sleep disturbance
  • Chronic cough and/or congestion

Dr Vartabedian also discusses gas as an ‘unexpected consequence of feeding problems’, because babies with reflux typically swallow a lot of air while they’re feeding.

The chapter that really opened my eyes was Chapter Five, ‘Milk Protein Allergy’ AKA cow’s milk protein allergy/intolerance or CMPI. As discussed in The Story of A an osteopath initially suggested to me that dairy might be the source of Ada’s woes, but it was in Colic Solved that I learned about the symptoms of CMPI and realised that it was indeed a problem.

However, as informative and practical as Dr Vartabedian’s book is, it doesn’t mention tongue or lip ties as a cause of reflux at all. Instead it urges parents of reflux babies to treat with medications, and describes seeking alternative treatments such as aromatherapy and chiropractic as ‘just a couple of the extreme measures that parents will resort to when faced with the feeling that there’s nothing that can help their baby.’ As someone who sought and found great help from osteopathy for A’s reflux, not to mention having bodywork recommended by Dr Nigro after getting A’s tongue tie and lip tie revised, I found the absence of thorough discussion on these topics and treatments disappointing.

More on tongue tie and lip tie and their connection with reflux coming soon…